Category Archives: Health

Chronic Renal Failure pt. 3: Subcutaneous Fluids

In our last two posts, we discussed Chronic Renal Failure and how it is managed. Today, we’re going to give step-by-step instructions on how to administer subcutaneous fluids, one of the key treatments for animals with renal disease. 

Ali (possibly our all-time favorite CRF kitty!) has been receiving subcutaneous fluids for several years now

Why do we give subcutaneous fluids? 

There are a number of reasons why a cat might require fluid administration under the skin at home. Chronic kidney disease is probably the most common reason because CRF kitties need extra fluids–beyond what they are able to drink–to flush renal toxins out of their systems.  Sometimes a sick patient will not reliably drink enough water and extra fluid administration is required, or perhaps an oral injury may preclude drinking and thus extra fluids are needed.  In any case, if you are reading this, fluids under the skin have probably been recommended for your pet, you have received a demonstration on fluid administration, and this guide is meant as a handy “tip sheet’ for when you are on your own at home with your pet.

*Disclaimer: Subcutaneous fluids should not be administered without the direction and supervision of a veterinarian. *

What you will need:

  • needles: Needles come in various sizes. The rule of thumb is the lower the number, the faster the flow (but this also means the needle is bigger). Find the lowest gauge your cat will tolerate.

Needles by size. The lower the gauge number, the larger the needle and the faster the fluids will flow.

Continue reading

Chronic Renal Failure Pt. 2

In part two of our series on Chronic Renal Failure, we’re discussing some of the treatments used to manage the symptoms associated with CRF. 

Ali is an adorable 21 year old kitty who has been living with CRF for several years

Your cat has just been diagnosed with kidney disease, and you’re worried and a little overwhelmed by the changes your veterinarian has suggested. Perhaps you’ve been told your cat needs a special diet. Maybe she needs medications, or even fluids. Today, we’re going to list some of the more commonly prescribed treatments associated with kidney disease and explain why they’re used.

  • Diet: There are several prescription diets on the market today that area tailored to cats with CRF. Kidney-friendly diets will have lower levels of protein to ease the workload of the kidneys, as well as decreased levels of phosphorus and sodium. They will also often contain increased levels of Omega 3 fatty acids, amino acids, and B vitamins to make up for vitamins and minerals lost from excessive urination.
  • Phosphorus binders: As the kidneys lose their ability to excrete phosphorus, it becomes important to limit the levels your cat takes in through his diet. In addition to dietary measures, oral medications might be used to bind to extra phosphorus in the kidney to aid in secretion. Phosphorus binders must be given immediately before, after, or with food so they can help the kidney excrete excess phosphorus in food. Common drug names are Sucralfate, Carafate, and Amphogel.
  • Nausea medications: Cats with renal disease can experience

    Appetite stimulants can cause increased activity and vocalization

    nausea as a results of the buildup of toxins in their systems. Anti-nausea medications such as Pepcid (Famotidine), Zantac (Ranitidine), Cerenia, and Anzemet (Dolasetron) can help reduce nausea and therefore increase appetite and provide a better quality of life.

  • Appetite stimulants: Because of the nausea associated with renal disease, some cats will refuse food.  Appetite stimulants such as Cyproheptadine and Mirtazipine can make anorexic cats feel hungry. Mirtazipine also has the added benefit of reducing nausea. Both Cyproheptadine and Mirtazipine can cause some behavioral changes in kitties such as increased activity and vocalization.
  • Amlodipine: As we mentioned in the first installment of this series, cats with kidney disease often become hypertensive because they kidneys play a key role in regulating blood pressure. Amlodipine (a generic of Norvasc) is a blood pressure medication that is commonly prescribed to cats with renal insufficiency. Amlodipine is not metabolized through the kidneys, making it safe for cats with compromised kidney function.
  • Epogen: As kidney function decreases, the kidneys lose their ability to create erithropoiten, the hormone that controls the production of red blood cells. Epogen is a hormone injection given to severely anemic cats to stimulate the manufacturing of red blood cells.
  • Potassium: Cats with renal disease will often experience some weakness when their potassium levels become low. Potassium supplements can improve their mobility and quality of life significantly. These can come in pill form, powder form (both pill and powder form are marketed under the name Tumil-K), or even be added to a fluid bag.
  • Fluids: Subcutaneous (given under the skin) fluids can be given to help the kidneys filter out toxins and keep the cat hydrated. In acute renal failure cats, intravenous (commonly called “IV”) fluids are often given during hospitalization to stabilize their condition, followed by regular subcutaneous fluids at home to maintain their kidney function. While injecting your cat with fluids at home might seem daunting, it is fairly easy to do once a comfort level is achieved. Most cats tolerate the administration of fluids well, especially if given positive reinforcement during the treatment.

    Subcutaneous fluid set-up: Fluid bag, line, and needle

This week was an overview of some of the common treatments for cats with kidney disease. Next week, we will post step-by-step instructions on administering injections and subcutaneous fluids! 

Chronic Renal Failure Pt. 1

Because of the large amount of information out there about kidney disease, we are dividing this post into a few installments. This week, we’re discussing what Chronic Renal Failure is, what the symptoms are, and how it is diagnosed. We will discuss treatment and progression in further blog posts.

Chronic renal failure, or kidney disease, is one of the most common diseases affecting older cats. In most cases, renal disease progresses slowly over time, resulting in a gradual onset of symptoms over months or even years. Regular exams and labwork can help diagnose renal disease in the early stages.

Cats with renal disease will drink and urinate more than usual

What do the kidneys do?

The kidneys have several important functions: They act as filters, ridding the body of toxins (primarily urea and creatinine) and maintaining electrolyte balance. They produce erythropoietin, which helps the body create red blood cells, and renin, which regulates blood pressure. Lastly, the kidneys produce and concentrate urine, which flushes the filtered toxins out of the body. When a cat’s kidney function is compromised, waste products build up in the bloodstream, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and sodium levels become imbalanced, and the ability to produce red blood cells and regulate blood pressure is affected. Compromised kidneys will have to work harder to rid the body of toxins, producing more urine and causing dehydration when the cat cannot drink enough water to make up for the amount she is losing.

What are the signs of CRF?

A cat with renal disease might exhibit any of the following symptoms:

Stevie (R) stopped grooming himself when his kidney disease advanced.

  • increased drinking and urination
  • weight loss
  • vomiting (food or clear liquid/foam)
  • nausea/lip smacking
  • drooling
  • loss of appetite
  • muscle wasting
  • constipation
  • decreased grooming/poor hair coat
  • bad breath
  • weakness
  • dehydration
  • hovering over water dish
If you notice your kitty experiencing any of these symptoms, you should have an exam and basic labwork done to rule out kidney disease and other health issues. 

What are the causes of CRF?

Persian cats are genetically predisposed to PKD

Chronic renal failure is typically a disease of older cats, though genetics, diet, and other disease processes can play a role in declining kidney function. In many cases, the kidneys simply “wear out” when the nephrons that eliminate waste products and keep electrolytes in balance begin to die off, decreasing the kidneys’ ability to filter out toxins. CRF can also be the result of genetic issues such as Polycystic Kidney Disease, which is most common in Persian-type cats. With PKD, cysts develop in the kidneys and normal function is lost. Cats can also be born with abnormalities to one or both kidneys, or with only one kidney. In these cases, the functioning kidney is under more stress than it would be in a cat with two normal kidneys.

Dental disease can contribute to CRF if left untreated; bacteria from the oral cavity get into the bloodstream and force the kidneys to work harder. It is important to your cat’s kidney health to address dental heath issues as they occur. High blood pressure can be a product of kidney disease, but it can also cause damage to the kidneys by increasing their workload. Urinary tract infections, if left untreated, can lead to kidney disease and kidney infections, and stones can cause both chronic and acute kidney disease. Regular health screening can catch theses issues before they cause too much damage.

Acute Renal Failure

Chronic renal failure is a progressive deterioration of the kidneys, but cats can also experience acute renal failure when their kidneys abruptly cease functioning. This can be caused by urinary obstructions, infection, trauma, and the ingestion of toxins. Cats in acute renal failure experience an abrupt shutdown of kidney function and need immediate medical intervention  if they are to survive.

Keeping your cat's pearly whites free of plaque can prevent kidney damage.

How is CRF diagnosed?

There are several conditions with symptoms similar to those seen in cats with CRF. The only way to know for sure is to have your veterinarian run laboratory tests checking your cat’s blood chemistries and ability to concentrate urine. It is also recommended to screen for high blood pressure, especially in geriatric cats and those who are suspect for kidney disease.


Check back next week for more information about CRF!

Adopting a Cat

So you’re thinking of adopting a cat; here are some things to consider before adopting, as well as what to look for and what questions to ask when considering bringing  a cat or kitten into your home:

Am I ready to take on the responsibility of caring for a cat?

Before you adopt a cat, make sure you have the resources you need to care for an animal properly. Are you ready to devote the next 15 to 20 years to a relationship with a kitty?  Is your living situation stable? Are you able to afford veterinary care, food, toys, insurance, litter, and other costs of cat ownership? The ASPCA estimates that in the first year of cat ownership, an owner can expect to spend about $1035, and that’s not taking emergency care into account. If you answered “yes” to the above questions, then perhaps you’re ready to begin preparing your home for a new companion.

What do I need to do before bringing my new cat home? 

Now that you’ve decided you’re ready to open your heart and home to a new companion, it’s time to prepare for your new friend’s arrival. You’ll need the basics, of course: litter pans, food and water dishes, toys, and kitty beds, but you’ll also need to make sure your home is safe for a cat or kitten. Check to make sure your windows have screens that are free from holes, that there isn’t any exposed wiring anywhere, and that you don’t have any blankets or other knit items with loose yarn or string hanging from them. Kittens like to chew on things, so you’ll want to bundle all your electrical cords and make sure they’re not dangling in an enticing way–you can even coat them with cheap roll-on deodorant as a deterrent.  Check to make sure none of your household plants are poisonous to cats, and remove any that are. You’ll also want to make sure your new companion has places to climb, hide, and scratch. Check out OSU’s Indoor Pet Initiative for more information on creating a stimulating environment for your cat.

You’ll want to consider veterinary care and have a practice chosen before you bring home your new pet, and you should also consider insurance plans or starting a savings account in case of emergency. Many shelters offer a trial of insurance upon adoption, but plans vary widely, so if you’re considering insurance do some research before signing up. You’ll also want to know where emergency hospitals are located just in case. It’s a good idea to have your regular veterinarian and an emergency veterinarian’s number somewhere handy; program it into your phone or post it somewhere in your home.

What do I need to know about my new cat before I adopt?

Before you head to a shelter to choose your new friend, make sure you have an idea of what you want in a cat. Do you want a laid-back kitty who will hang out with you and cuddle? Or would you prefer an adventurer who is playful and mischievous? If you have a specific personality in mind, you might consider looking for animals who’ve been in foster care, as their foster families will know a bit more about them. Adult cats will be more predictable, kittens will adapt to change a bit faster. Either will make an excellent companion.

Before bringing your new friend into your home, make sure to find out what type of care she’s had. Most shelters will have vaccinated and neutered any cats they’re offering for adoption, but you’ll want to be sure the cat has been tested for FeLV and FIV and that they’re parasite-free. You’ll also want to find out if your new pet has been microchipped, and if not, consider doing this soon after adoption. Some shelters do these things as part of their protocol, others do not. If the cat has not been tested for retroviruses and parasites, make sure you have these things done by a veterinarian before introducing your new kitty to any other cats in your household. It’s a good idea to have your vet examine any new pet you adopt regardless of testing status.

When adopting from a shelter, be aware that while they do their best to limit exposure to infections, it’s not uncommon for shelter animals to develop upper respiratory infections, have parasites despite deworming, or have fungal infections such as ringworm. Be prepared to give medications and visit your veterinarian with your new pet if needed.

Adopting a cat does require a good deal of preparation and planning, but the reward well outweighs the time and money spent. You will have a new family member who will be there to cuddle, play with, and listen to you without judgement, offering entertainment and love for years to come.

Cat-Proofing Your Holidays

Subway Kitty is VERY interested in her new tree

The holiday season is a time most people associate with gifts, savory foods, decorations, boxes wrapped with ribbons, the smell of pine trees and baked goods, and gatherings of friends and family. What people don’t often consider are the dangers holiday decorations and gatherings can pose to their feline family members.

The Cat-Proof Christmas Tree

Ahh, the smell of a fresh-cut tree, the glimmering lights and decorations… to your cat, this is a jungle gym with all kinds of neat toys hanging from it! The number one rule of Christmas tree decorating with cats is NO TINSEL! It’s shiny and eye-catching, so cats are often drawn to it, but tinsel can cause serious problems for kitties. Cats who ingest tinsel face the risk of intestinal obstruction or stricture, which is life-threatening. The same goes for tinsel garlands. Ornaments small enough for cats to fit in their mouths should be avoided as well. We recommend avoiding ornaments that hang on thread, and instead opt for wire (again, to avoid ingestion.) Clamp the end shut as tightly as you can to keep the ornament firmly on the tree (and out of kitty’s paws or mouth.)

Cats are very attracted to tinsel and garlands, but these can be very dangerous!

When setting up a tree, make sure it is securely in the base so it doesn’t tip, and anchor it to the ceiling with wire as well for added sturdiness. If your ceiling is high enough, place the tree on a table–cats will be less likely to climb the tree if the bottom is off the ground. Make sure your cats can’t get to the water in the tree base; additives to keep the tree fresh can be toxic to pets, and even plain water will eventually grow bacteria that can make your kitty feel ill. Make sure all electrical cords are secured well and not dangling where your cat might be tempted to play with them.

Cats are very curious about flames. Make sure your kitty isn't able to access any burning candles.

Take care lighting a menorah or any candles around a cat. If you are unable to watch your pet while the candles are lit, either keep the flames enclosed behind a barrier of glass or out of reach of your pet. Not only could your cat injure herself attempting to investigate the flames, but she could start a fire if she knocks a candle over. If you can’t keep your cat away from the candles, consider electric lights instead.

Toxic Holiday Plants

When most people think of toxic plants and the holiday season, they immediately think of poinsettia plants. Poinsettias are mildly toxic to cats, causing stomach upset and vomiting, but mistletoe, all types of lilies, daffodils, and holly plants are much more dangerous. It is best to avoid these plants altogether for the safety of your cat. Pine needles are also mildly toxic, though most cats leave them be; if you have a cat who likes to ingest plant material, it might be best to go with a synthetic tree if you celebrate Christmas.

Holiday Gatherings

Holiday gatherings can be loads of fun, but there are things cat owners need to watch out for! Many traditional holiday meals involve poultry, the bones of which are a choking and obstruction hazard for cats. Alcohol and chocolate are also often present at these meals, and are both toxic to our pets. Make sure your adventurous kitty doesn’t scavenge unattended plates!

Diamond helping us get into the holiday spirit!

If your cat is shy, you might want to give her a quiet place in the house that isn’t being used by visitors so she can feel secure. Feliway, a synthetic feline pheromone that can help reduce anxiety, is helpful during these times as well. Make sure your cat has access to food, water, and a litter pan without having to navigate through a crowd.  Even if your kitty is generally more adventurous, she might benefit from a quiet place to avoid noisy, crowded situations.

These are some basic things you can do to keep your kitty safe during the holidays. Feel free to comment below if we’ve missed anything, and have a happy and safe holiday season!